Things you should know about metal roofing material before you install it on your property

If you plan on changing your roofing material with a new one, maybe you should consider metal as your next roofing solution. Every day more and more people opt for metal roofing systems in the United States. You might be asking yourself why is metal roofing system getting so popular? Well, it is getting more and more popular because it is sturdy, resilient and it can last for up to a century. So today I will talk about drawbacks and advantages of metal roofing with my friend Victor from Anchor Roofing from Houston, TX.

So what are the benefits?

Metal roofing material is far more superior than other traditional roofing materials when it comes to life cycle, weight, energy efficiency, and installation. If your metal roofing system is correctly installed, it will probably last as long as the property it protects. It can quickly shed off the water, resist the high winds, and it can stand up to snow with minimal effort. Metal is resistant to rot, insects, mildew and fire. If you are worried about the warranty, you will be glad to hear that your metal roof will come with a warranty ranging anywhere from 25 to 50 years. Because it is so light in weight, you will be able to install it on your existing roofing support structure. Metal roofing material is non-combustible, and that is why it is given the Class A fire resistance rating. As we have already said, metal roofs are excellent energy efficient roofing materials. If you decide to install one on your home, you will soon experience lower energy bills. Because of its hard and slippery surface, metal roof won’t fall victim to snow or rain.

And now for some disadvantages

Just like any other roofing material available on the market today, metal has its flaws. Don’t worry; there aren’t any huge flaws, but we will talk about some of the present disadvantages when it comes to metal in residential roofing. Let’s get the biggest out of the way – the money. Most of the homeowners stop considering metal as their roofing solution once they find out what the price tag is. We admit that it is the high initial price, but you have to think about the big picture here. You will return that money in no time since you will be saving money on your energy bills. During the hail, your roofing material can dent. Same can happen if you walk on it or if any debris hits your roof and it can be somewhat noisy. It is not that easy to install which means that you will have to hire a roofing professional with experience in installing metal roofs.

So that would be it about the advantages and disadvantages of metal roofing. As you can see, there are more advantages than disadvantages which mean that metal roofing material might be perfect roofing material for your property. And make sure that you hire best roofing contractor available.

Anchor Roofing, Inc.

3511 Bering Dr.
Houston , TX 77057

Phone: (713) 266-2777
Hours: Payment Method: All Major Credit Cards and Checks



Wind damage to your roofing system

A storm can pass without generating hail, snow or rain and it can still damage your property. Your roof can sustain damage even during a bright day. I’m talking about silent ”assassin”, the wind. High winds can generate massive amounts of force and pressure on when colliding with your roof and your roofing system can become weak over time. One day your roofing material will just give up and end up on the ground. How can you protect yourself from that? Well, you can protect yourself by regularly maintaining your roof and by having it inspected by a certified professional to see if there are some damaged areas on your roofing system. Roofs are designed to easily withstand average pressure and force of the wind, but what happens when your roof gets in the way of an intense, high-speed wind?

How will your roof get damaged

The Wind affects a different part of your roof in a variety of ways. For example, corners of your roofing system and edges as well will have to sustain the biggest force. Those areas are most critical during a windstorm. If your roofing material is not secured tightly, wind can lift it up, and it can lead to the domino effect. One loose shingle can cost you your whole roofing system. You can avoid this by having small repairs performed on your roof instead of waiting for the worst case scenario to happen. If the wind lifts up your roofing material, your insulation will be exposed to rain, snow, and everything coming from outside. This can lead to leaks and severe water damage to your roofing support structure and even your whole property.


Strong winds can easily pick up small debris from the ground, and it can end up being propelled at your roof at high speeds. Your roof can get covered with dust particles, dirt, leaves, branches, tree limbs, and even small rocks. Now imagine all those things hitting your roof at high speed. All of that can lead to problems. Your roofing material could easily get cracked or broken. If you leave that damage untreated up on your roof, you will have a leak on your hands after a couple of rains. Water can easily penetrate those damaged spots, and it can end up anywhere in your home destroying everything along the way. I believe you don’t want that happening to your home, don’t you? Most important thing to do after a severe windstorm passes your area is to contact a trusted, LICENSED, and experienced roofing contractor. Hire them to inspect your roof and to check if there are some hidden damages present. Repairing small problems now will save you tons of money along the way.

So to conclude, if your home gets hit by gusts of high winds, make sure that you check your roof to see if there are some spots with missing roofing material or if there are some big chunks of debris present on your roof, contact your roofing contractor as soon as you can.

I will use this opportunity to say once again THANK YOU to Victor from Anchor Roofing, Inc., best roofer in Houston, TX. He taught me so much about roofing industry, and I owe him that.

Anchor Roofing, Inc.

3511 Bering Dr.
Houston , TX 77057

Phone: (713) 266-2777
Hours: Payment Method: All Major Credit Cards and Checks



Why having a leaky roofing system can be dangerous

Some home problems homeowners usually detect when its already too late. For example, your roof can be damaged for quite some time already, and your home might have a leak months before you see the signs of water damage inside your home. The source of the leak can be up to 20 ft further than the spot where you have noticed leak signs, and that means that detecting and finding a source of the leak is not an easy job. Trying to fight that battle alone will leave you with just more bills to pay. Hiring a professional to deal with a leak is the smartest way to go. Today we will talk about why is it dangerous to have a leaky roof over your head.


Water can and will damage your attic along with your ceiling. Water can easily damage attic insulation, roofing support structure, wiring and if the leak is big one it can even destroy your ceiling. This will leave you with dark wet spots across your ceiling, bubbling paint and it can even spread to walls.

Roofing Support Structure

We all know that wood and water don’t mix together. If you attic has a leak, the humidity will cause a roofing support structure to get infested with dry rot. Dry rot can significantly reduce the structural integrity of your roofing system as well as the structural integrity of your home.


Humidity and water spreading across your walls can become the breeding ground for mold and mildew. Mold can spread across your whole home and end up in your heating or your HVAC (air conditioning) system. Mold can seriously harm your health and living inside a home filled with mold will you with respiratory problems. Also, mold can quickly spread to your furniture, curtains, and carpets.


Attic insulation can easily get damaged by water and humidity. If you have a leak and if water is dripping all over your attic insulation, it will get destroyed, and you will be left with higher energy bills and a leaky roof.

Water, Shock and Fire Hazards

A leaking roof can allow water to travel all over your home and water often finds a way to get in contact with electrical wiring. This can generate spark, and it can quickly start a fire in your home or your attic. Pay attention to that especially if you have a metal roofing system.

Having a leaking roofing system can be dangerous. As Victor from Anchor Roofing from Houston, TX said, nobody wants to deal with their roofing problems. That is often true, but sometimes you need to hire somebody else to care for your roof if you know that you can’t. Professional and licensed roofing contractor can detect a leak source and perform needed repairs to protect your home. If you notice any leak signs, please contact a professional roofing company.


Everything you need to know about roof cleaning and maintenance

Sooner or later your roofing material will get covered with dirt, grime, moss, and algae. Recently, our student housing units were in need of maintenance because most of the roofing systems were stained and covered with debris. Usually, stains caused by these things are visible and not only will it lower the curb appeal of your property but they will damage your roofing material if you don’t react on time and have them removed. You will be glad to hear that cleaning your roofing system is a DIY process which is relatively simple to carry out. In this post, we will try to give you some useful advice if you plan on cleaning your roofing system by yourself. But remember, it is always better to contact a certified roofing professional to inspect and clean your roof because there might be some damage present which you won’t notice.

Removing Debris

Pine needles, branches, sticks, and leaves will often collect on top of your roofing system, especially if your home is close to trees. You can get rid of that debris by climbing onto your roofing system and clearing big pieces of present debris. You can do that by using your hands. Next, you can use a broom or a brush to sweep dirt and small debris. If you have a leaf blower, you can use it to remove every last debris particle, but be careful not to lose balance.

Removing Moss

Moss can cause significant problems to your whole property. If you leave it on your roofing system, you will probably end up dealing with a roof leak in no time. You can remove moss by following the next steps. First, you need to prepare basic cleaning solution made out of baking powder or soda, liquid dish detergent, ammonia or bleach and salt mixed with hot water. Saturate all areas where moss is present and leave it to soak for a couple of hours. After that, the moss will die, and the next rain will wash it down. Don’t forget to remove it from your gutters.

Removing Algae

To remove the algae growth on your roof, you can use an acidic solution such as a mixture of water and vinegar (50/50). Saturate your roofing materials where algae or black spots are present and then use a broom or a brush to clean all areas covered in stains.

What Not to Do

Just to clear things out we will mention some things which you should never do to your roofing system. A pressure washer is a big no-no when it comes to cleaning the roof. You can easily damage your roofing material by shooting pressurized water at it. Every cleaning solution you make should be tested on a tiny sample of your roofing system so you can be sure that it won’t damage your roofing material. Always use soft brushes when cleaning the roof, rugged brushes and brooms can damage your roofing material or tear off granules and remember always to start from the top, so you won’t step on a slippery surface and fall.


I would like to thank Victor from anchor roofing, inc. located in Houston, TX for providing me with much needed information t write this blog post.


North Carolina is one of the most beautiful, exciting and interesting states in the US. On this new blog post we are going to present you the best 5 things to do here, so you can have an idea on all the things you can do here, so you never get bored. In fact, this state provides you with so many things that it’s almost impossible to get bored at all. But on this article we are going to talk about the top-notch options. We,, invite you to keep reading!

#1: Visit the Blue Ridge Parkway

If you want to keep in touch with the majestic nature present in North Carolina, then you MUST visit the Blue Ridge Parkway – you will be blown away by its beauty!

This place is simply magical, and we can dare to say that it’s one of the most beautiful attractions in the US. You just need to stay there to witness the sunset, you will be delighted by it. It seems like it had been taken from a fantasy world. You can come here with your friends and experience a very nice day, because the Blue Ridge Parkway is a beautiful example of the nature present in North Carolina.

#2: Outer Banks

If you want to see something even more surreal than our last attraction, then you need to visit Outer Banks. This place is a connection between two sides of the world, because it separates the Atlantic Ocean from the mainland. The scene shown at Outer Banks is simply magical and we can bet that you will be delighted by it.

Here you can dive or just swim. It’s one of the most popular attractions in North Carolina by the way, so don’t be surprised if you find lots of tourists around.

#3: Hatteras Island

Another interesting place to visit in North Carolina is Hatteras Island. It’s inside the Outer Banks islands group. Basically it’s a barrier island, because it divides the Atlantic Ocean and the Pamlico Sound. It’s one of the most beautiful attractions to visit in North Carolina, because it’s very exotic and you won’t find something similar in the rest of the world.

There are many tours that visit this island. So we encourage you to book one with your friends, so you can have something interesting to do in the weekend. It’s a great way to discover more about this beautiful state.

#4: Maggie Valley

If you are looking for a place where you can relax at your max, then you need to visit this town in Haywood County. Here you can enjoy of activities like trekking, golfing, etc. A great place to visit with your friends.

#5: Blowing Rock

And closing this article we have another town you must visit: Blowing Rock. If you want to explore some of the best mountains in the country, then this is the town you need to visit. Blowing Rock won’t fail to amaze you!

PHILIP URI TREISMAN, professor of mathematics and public affairs; director of the Charles A. Dana Center
[20 years at UT]


1. No matter how highly I regard my students, with proper push and support, they always surpass my expectations. Hook’em Horns!

2. Teaching is much harder than outsiders to the profession know. But on a crappy day, when nothing else works, we professors have the special privilege of being able to select a few students, engage them, and challenge them to prepare for a life worthy of their best goals and deepest values.

3. Stay in touch with your students. There is no end of pleasure in watching their careers develop and their achievements surpass our own.

4. Administration is a tough, messy and occasionally nasty business. We faculty should support — and regularly thank — our chairs, deans and senior campus leaders for their service, except, perhaps, when they seem to be taking too much pleasure in their work.

5. Too many Texans only know UT as the institution that rejected their child or relative for admission. Thus, our public service matters in generating broad public support and understanding of the important role the University plays in every Texan’s life.

MARTIN KEVORKIAN, associate professor, Department of English
[10 years at UT]


1. It’s a challenge for professors not to continue to see the world from the perspective of their own grad school experiences, and that’s one reason that teaching — of intrinsic value wherever it occurs — matters for the research mission of the University and vice versa. Tie at No. 1 with: Lists like this one pose a grave temptation to individuals with a capacity for fatuous declaration.

2. If you’re looking for parking on campus, you might want to try … wait, I’m not telling you that.

3. The shuttles and the free-with-ID access to Capital Metro almost mean that you don’t need the information that I’m withholding in item No. 2.

4. The wisdom of advising staff and course schedulers can fuel the engine of curriculum

5. The students are both bright and polite, but they walk far too slowly!

SARA SUTCLIFFE, Lecturer, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
[6 years at UT]


As I have (honestly, by accident!) been at UT as an undergrad, a graduate student and now a lecturer, these have several perspectives:

1. It’s a really great feeling when an ex-/current student sees you and says, “Hello,” when you pass them on the street.

2. You are human: You’ll make mistakes. The trick is to find them, show why/how you made them and try to fix things as soon as you can.

3. Never get a flu shot and go straight back to teaching that afternoon. (I wasn’t sick, but the side effects made for an interesting afternoon’s lecturing…)

4. UT is a huge place. It can be very lonely when you first arrive (especially if you’re from another continent!). Join some student groups (ones that will help you succeed at your academic goals as well as give some social interaction), and after a while, it’ll shrink and feel like home. Remember it will ALWAYS take you longer than you think it should to get from A to B on campus, because it usually involves going via C, D, E …

5. One of the best things about UT is the myriad of different talks, exhibits and concerts that happen. Many of them are free; just go look at all the fliers in the buildings and online and go learn about something new!

Compiled by Rosch Wadera / Our Campus staff.

By Victoria Heckenlaible

Late-night building attendant Refugio Esquivel peered over the metal railing down uniform stairs in the UT Administration Building before beginning to mop. The fluorescent lights bathed the entire staircase in an industrial glow.

“I always feel like I’m going to fall off these stairs,” he said.

Esquivel, who has been working at UT for 11 years, is part of the custodial staff that cleans the campus and its buildings from 5:30 p.m. to 2 a.m. Attendants start their shifts by signing in to receive building section assignments and chemical packets for cleaning. These building attendants concentrate on specific cleaning duties that rotate every three months from lights duties, vacuuming, cleaning restrooms and utilities work. This is a part of the team’s effort to speed up the cleaning process and add variety.

UT also uses a unique custodial organization system called Operating System 1, which increases the pace, promotes efficiency and helps cut back on waste. Employees are given cards with an hourly schedule of where they are supposed to be in the cleaning process along with exact chemical rations in small colorful bags.

Fidel Garcia, the building services supervisor, said he is proud that the University adopted this system, joining the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the University of Michigan.

“Now everything is portioned out in the bags and we know exactly how much [of the] cleaning supplies each person is using,”
Garcia said. “We can look at an employee’s card to find them instead of spending half our time looking for them.”

When Garcia started working at UT nine years ago, the piles of plastic bags and cleaning chemicals that often went unused bothered him, he said. Then the University implemented Operating System 1 to save money and time and to be more environmentally safe.

“Most of the employees didn’t like the change — no one ever likes change,” Garcia said. “But then they starting liking it; the new system was faster-paced.”

When the employees sign in, they receive a color-coded card with cleaning assignments and matching colored chemical packages: green for light cleaning, blue for vacuuming, pink for restrooms and yellow for utilities. Even the schedule on the dry erase board is color-coordinated.

Though the building attendant job is extremely organized and efficiently managed, the late-night hours give employees increased flexibility during the daytime.

“Most of us prefer the late-night hours, because it lets us do what we need to do [during the day],” Garcia said.

In some cases, the hours allow for the opportunity to have second job during the day.

Garcia said one UT building attendant only sleeps for three hours a night. The employee works at UT at night then drives to an Austin suburb for a daytime custodial position.

“I don’t know how he does it,” Garcia said. “And I don’t know how my brother did it either — he worked two jobs for 12 years and finally had to cut down to just one.”

For some of the attendants, an alternative to a second job is to sign up to work large UT events, which provide opportunities for extra hours on the weekends.

“Many of the employees try to work the big events,” said building attendant leader Roberto Rodriguez. “It helps them make extra money.”

As a building attendant leader, Rodriguez supervises teams of eight to 12 attendants, audits supply usage and keeps track of hours.

Even with the weekend opportunities and the flexibility of the late-night hours, the benefits can only last so long as workers get sick of working two jobs and others start families.

“I used to be fine with the hours, but now I have a daughter,” Garcia said. “She’s growing up and wants to spend time with us in the evenings.”

Garcia is usually only able to spend 30 minutes with his daughter between the time she arrives home from school and he has to go to work.

Outside of balancing work and home and other challenges that go along with their jobs, the late-night custodial employees have had some lighthearted and even bizarre moments working when no one else seems to be around campus.

“‘Junior, Junior,’ I kept hearing after I turned my lights off,” said attendant Esquivel. “On the third time, I turned around and I saw a person crawling on the floor with no legs.”

Esquivel said he stared in horror as the apparatus crawled closer and the blood pooled on his freshly cleaned floors. He finally snapped out of the vision as he began screaming, he said.

“I was terrified,” Esquivel said. “I just took off running with my friend chasing after me.”

When his friend caught up with him, he forced Esquivel to walk back to the spot in the original pharmacy building. But even with no blood or signs of the legless crawler, Esquivel still refuses to ever return.

Attendant leader Rodriguez has also had his share of interesting interactions. He said that at one point, he followed wet footprints every night over the course of several weeks around the Music Recital Hall building. Each time he followed the footprints they led to nothing, until finally he and a building attendant found the culprit.

“I swung open the restroom door to see a butt-naked man standing in front of the sink,” Rodriguez said.

The man was bathing, splashing water from the running sink on himself and using the soap from the soap dispenser as a puddle of water formed around him. Rodriguez and the attendant then called UTPD to handle the situation.

From possible spirits to attempted bathroom sink baths, the late-night custodial crews have seen it all. The nocturnal hours are prone to unusual sightings and potential challenges that seem to affect the building attendants’ and leaders’ daily lives.

MICHAEL SINGER, professor in the Section of Integrative Biology in the School of Biological Sciences
[35 years at UT]

1. Professors should understand that students are real people and students should understand the same about professors. Among real people, kindness is always a virtue and its absence always a sadness and a pain. Students often don’t realize that not only can professors be unkind to students, but students can be unkind to professors. Twenty years later, I still remember an anonymous student evaluation that read: “I expected to enjoy this class, and I might have done so were it not for Dr. Singer. His physical appearance was MORE than disgusting! Had he been clean, maybe I would have been able to stand to look at him and listen. In short, I hated everything about Singer and his class.” I work very hard to make my classes both informative and interesting to students, and to have them dismissed so casually and completely is really quite painful!

2. Professorial duties are teaching, research and service. The only way to be a happy professor is to resign yourself very quickly to the fact that you can do none of these as well as you know you could do it if it were your only task. It’s true that research and teaching can complement each other, but this is mainly true for the most advanced classes and at the freshman level it is rare that my research directly feeds into and improves my teaching. In the main, research and teaching compete for my time and effort.

3. It IS possible to teach evolution to non-science students in Texas, if you do it gently.

4. Professoring is a good gig for folks like me who get sick from time to time. I am judged on what I have achieved in the past five years. If I were judged on what I’ve achieved in the past month, I’d be carrying a “will work for food” sign.

5. Professoring is NOT sexy. Around 1978 or so, I remember driving on 26th Street and passing three young women who hollered out, “Hey, cool car, give us a ride!” So I did, and someone said: “This is a neat car, what do you do?” Though I could have said, “I’m a truck driver,” because it used to be true … [I decided I was] going to tell the truth even though I thought I knew the consequence. So I said, “I teach biology at UT.” And the reply? “LET US OUT!”

HOPE FITZGERALD, lecturer in the Department of Middle Eastern Studies
[2 years at UT]

1. Challenge is a good thing. Our students know what they’re getting into when they decide to study a complicated language intensively. When we keep the environment challenging (but hopefully not too stressful!) they keep making great

2. Be flexible, keeping your priorities in mind. No matter how well I plan for a class, something is bound to change at the last second, and it’s important to keep my priorities for the course in place while being flexible with how we work toward them as a class. For example, the first one-third of this semester, Egypt was in turmoil, and instead of discussing class readings, we sometimes spent class time watching events unfold there on the news. Helping students connect their language learning to the real world and to that bit of history in the making was so important that some other priorities had to be modified.

3. Students are responsible for their own learning. Every instructor I work with really wants his or her students to succeed and tries hard to make it happen, but in the end, it’s the student who decides whether or not to take advantage of the opportunities in front of them.

4. Seek, and you’ll (probably) find. UT has great resources available but in such a huge school, it’s not always easy to hear about them. If you need a service (counseling, tutoring, funding for a research project) it’s probably available here at UT—just start asking about it.

5. If you don’t occasionally take some time off, your head will explode.

5.5. Sleep has to be a priority. Organize your time and prioritize getting enough rest, or your semester will not go well.

Compiled by Sarah Pfeffer / Our Campus staff.

While staplers and tape dispensers tend to occupy most desks around campus, exhibits designer John Maisano’s is filled with clay figures of mosasaurs, sketches of prehistoric creatures and sculpture molds. Being the one-man exhibits department at Texas Memorial Museum, Maisano is tasked with making the museum a place that people want to visit through designing, creating and bringing the exhibits to life.

“When someone walks into the museum, I have three seconds to grab their attention and make them go ‘Oh, what’s that?’,” Maisano said. “When you enter a space you get a feeling from it — either it is crazy fun or ‘Eww, I don’t want to be here.’ That’s the real challenge of the job.”


Photo by Stephanie Bathurst

As the museum team member with the fine arts degree, Maisano brings the scientists’ specimens and dissertations to the public on a visual level, interpreting science through art.

“This position combines my architecture, art and theater experience,” he said. “It deals with lighting, the way people move around the space and how they encounter things. The lighting, colors and way a specimen is mounted [are] what draws
people in.”

The museum is a testament to his 11 years of work toward the goal of making science interesting and exciting. Whether it’s the larger-than-life-sized model of the rock cycle, the murals in the animal habitat display cases, the coloring book templates of dinosaurs or the entire Hall of Geology and Paleontology, Maisano has had a large impact on the public’s view of science.

“I will be given the room, the specimens, access to the scientists and curator, and have to make something pretty.”

Since he fills the role of carpenter, welder, painter and sculptor on top of actual designing, Maisano rarely has two days that look alike.

“It’s really neat — I never have any idea what’s coming down the pike on any given day,” he said. “This job entails everything from changing light bulbs to mounting specimens, to making and designing props for the needs of the education department.”


One of Maisano’s biggest projects right now is working with the education and paleontology departments to train K-12 teachers on how to incorporate science in their classrooms through art.

“It’s challenging because we’re dealing with people who have never drawn before, at the same time as art teachers,” he said. “I’m helping teachers to get rid of the fear of art — showing people who are afraid of drawing that it’s basically just shapes and that if you mess up clay, you can just do it again.”

Money is new dating criteria in China
Economic growth in China seems to have caused increased desire for good financial prospects in a potential mate, one UT professor has found.

Psychology professor David Buss and a team of researchers have discovered that the need for financial security among Chinese mate-seekers has grown over the past 25 years, reflecting economic development in China. The findings were published in the February edition of “Personality and Individual Differences.”

Buss led an International Selection Project in 1983 that asked 500 Chinese men and women to rank a set of qualities they seek in a sexual partner. In 2008, the researchers once again collected data from 1,060 participants and compared that data to that of the first study.

The results show a strong correlation between the increase of the standard of living in China over the last two decades and the importance of a “good earning capacity.” Both genders rated financial security higher in the 2008 study, but more women than men desired traits such as “social status.”

The study also found that men place more emphasis on youth and attractiveness of mates, while women prefer financial prospects and social standing. This gender gap supports the evolutionary theory that women and men look for partners who are fertile and financially stable.

“These findings reveal both important trends in the cultural evolution of values surrounding mating, as well as the robustness of sex differences in mate preferences over time,” Buss said.

Pent-up emotion may cause aggression
Bottling up emotions can make people more aggressive but fatigue does not, according to a study published in the journal “Social Psychological and Personality Science” in March.

UT professors Arthur Markman and Todd Maddox and two University of Minnesota researchers showed participants two infamous classic movie scenes: the overeating scene in “Monty Python’s The Meaning of Life” and the toilet bowl scene in “Trainspotting.” Half of the subjects, who were mostly students and members of the Army, were asked to stay awake for 24 hours prior to the study. The others were allowed to sleep.

Before watching the clips, some of the subjects were told not to visibly react to the images. Others were allowed to watch without restriction.

The study, which was funded in part by the U.S. Army, concluded that those who refrained from reacting were more aggressive than those who acted freely. The participants who were deprived of sleep reacted no differently than those who were well-rested, suggesting that fatigue does not make people more aggressive.

“Our research suggests people may become more aggressive after they have to control themselves,” Markman said. “Whatever psychological mechanisms are at work when people deal with stress and then have to exercise self control later are not the same thing that happens when you’re tired.”

The results of Markman and Maddox’s research reinforces the “ego depletion effect,” in which bottling up emotions may lead to increased aggression later in life.

Local action key to species conservation
Human activity, not simply climate change, is affecting plants and animals at the local level, according to UT biologists.

Professors Camille Parmesan and Michael C. Singer published their findings in “Nature Climate Change” in March, in response to increased pressure from policymakers to determine how many of the changes observed in species are from greenhouse gases versus other factors.

The general consensus among scientists is that funding would be better spent on studies of species adaptations and conservation of endangered species. Regardless of the reason behind species change, the affected animals and plants are feeling the heat.

“A changing climate is a changing climate, irrespective of its cause,” the scientists wrote in the journal.
The researchers emphasize the need to focus on human interactions with the environment, including air pollution and urban sprawl.

In “Nature Climate Change,” Parmesan and Singer cite the Quino butterfly population in the 1980s, which became endangered as a result of the urban growth of San Diego and Los Angeles. Singer, who has worked with the species since the 1960s, said that while climate change is partially to blame for the decline in Quino butterflies, it wasn’t the only driver.

The biologists stress the importance of acting locally to restore damaged habitats and removing invasive species. The issue of climate change is a problem on a much larger scale, they said.

— Jordan Schraeder